Invalidating living wills
This Code shall take effect one year after such publication. When the acts referred to are executed before the diplomatic or consular officials of the Republic of the Philippines in a foreign country, the solemnities established by Philippine laws shall be observed in their execution. Every person who through an act of performance by another, or any other means, acquires or comes into possession of something at the expense of the latter without just or legal ground, shall return the same to him. In case either or both of the contracting parties, being neither widowed nor divorced, are less than twenty years of age as regards the male and less than eighteen years as regards the female, they shall, in addition to the requirements of the preceding articles, exhibit to the local civil registrar, the consent to their marriage, of their father, mother or guardian, or persons having legal charge of them, in the order mentioned. Males above twenty but under twenty-five years of age, or females above eighteen but under twenty-three years of age, shall be obliged to ask their parents or guardian for advice upon the intended marriage. From the common mass of property support shall be given to the surviving spouse and to the children during the liquidation of the inventoried property and until what belongs to them is delivered; but from this shall be deducted that amount received for support which exceeds the fruits or rents pertaining to them. All the creditors of the husband and of the wife, as well as of the conjugal partnership shall be notified of any petition for judicial approval or the voluntary dissolution of the conjugal partnership, so that any such creditors may appear at the hearing to safeguard his interests. The family home is the dwelling house where a person and his family reside, and the land on which it is situated. If the petitioner is married, the family home may be selected from the conjugal partnership or community property, or from the separate property of the husband, or, with the consent of the wife, from her paraphernal property. The petition shall, moreover, be published once a week for three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation. Should any creditor whose claim is unsecured, oppose the establishment of the family home, the court shall grant the petition if the debtor gives sufficient security for the debt. In case of sale, the price or such portion thereof as may be determined by the court shall be used in acquiring property which shall be formed into a new family home. Upon the death of the person who has extrajudicially constituted the family home, the property shall not be liable for his debts other than those mentioned in Article 243. No declaration for the extrajudicial establishment of the family home shall be recorded in the Registry of Property if the estimated actual value of the building and the land exceeds the amount stated in Article 231. If the assignee has reasonable grounds to believe that the actual value of the family home exceeds the amount fixed in Article 231, he may take action under the provisions of Articles 247, 248 and 249. The same obligation shall devolve upon a widow who believes herself to have been left pregnant by the deceased husband, or upon the wife who believes herself to be pregnant by her husband from whom she has been legally separated. Whoever alleges the legitimacy or the illegitimacy of such child must prove his allegation. If he or his heirs are absent, the period shall be eighteen months if they should reside in the Philippines; and two years if abroad. In the absence of a record of birth, authentic document, final judgment or possession of status, legitimate filiation may be proved by any other means allowed by the Rules of Court and special laws. In these cases the heirs shall have a period of five years within which to institute the action.
Laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette, unless it is otherwise provided. When the laws speak of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood that years are of three hundred sixty-five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-four hours; and nights from sunset to sunrise. However, intestate and testamentary successions, both with respect to the order of succession and to the amount of successional rights and to the intrinsic validity of testamentary provisions, shall be regulated by the national law of the person whose succession is under consideration, whatever may be the nature of the property and regardless of the country wherein said property may be found. Even when an act or event causing damage to another's property was not due to the fault or negligence of the defendant, the latter shall be liable for indemnity if through the act or event he was benefited. In the absence of any declaration to that effect, it may be inferred from the text of the decision whether or not the acquittal is due to that ground. The exhibition of baptismal or birth certificates shall not be required if the parents of the contracting parties appear personally before the local civil registrar concerned and swear to the correctness of the lawful age of said parties, as stated in the application, or when the local civil registrar shall, by merely looking at the applicants upon their personally appearing before him, be convinced that either or both of them have the required age. In case the death certificate cannot be found, the party shall make an affidavit setting forth this circumstance and his or her actual civil status and the name and the date of the death of the deceased spouse. Whenever the liquidation of the partnership of two or more marriages contracted by the same person should be carried out at the same time, in order to determine the capital of each partnership all kinds of proof in the absence of inventories shall be admitted; and in case of doubt, the partnership property shall be divided between the different partnerships in proportion to the duration of each and to the property belonging to the respective spouses. In case of abuse of powers of administration of the conjugal partnership property by the husband, or in case of abandonment by the husband, separation of property may also be ordered by the court, according to the provisions of Articles 167 and 178, No. The husband and the wife may agree upon the dissolution of the conjugal partnership during the marriage, subject to judicial approval. Creditors, mortgagees and all other persons who have an interest in the estate shall be notified of the petition, and given an opportunity to present their objections thereto. If the court finds that the actual value of the proposed family home does not exceed twenty thousand pesos, or thirty thousand pesos in chartered cities, and that no third person is prejudiced, the petition shall be approved. When there is danger that a person obliged to give support may lose his or her fortune because of grave mismanagement or on account of riotous living, his or her spouse, if any, and a majority of those entitled to be supported by him or by her may petition the Court of First Instance for the creation of the family home. However, the family home shall under no circumstances be donated as long as there are beneficiaries. When a creditor whose claim is not mentioned in Article 243 obtains a judgment in his favor, and he has reasonable grounds to believe that the family home of the judgment debtor is worth more than the amount mentioned in Article 231, he may apply to the Court of First Instance for an order directing the sale of the property under execution. The court shall take measures to enforce this provision. The Court of First Instance may, upon application of any member of the family, a relative, or a friend, appoint a family council, whose duty it shall be to advise the court, the spouses, the parents, guardians and the family on important family questions. Against this presumption no evidence shall be admitted other than that of the physical impossibility of the husband's having access to his wife within the first one hundred and twenty days of three hundred which preceded the birth of the child. For the purposes of this article, the wife's adultery need not be proved in a criminal case. Such a child is conclusively presumed to be legitimate in any of these cases:(1) A child born before one hundred eighty days after the solemnization of the subsequent marriage is disputably presumed to have been conceived during the former marriage, provided it be born within three hundred days after the death of the former husband:(2) A child born after one hundred eighty days following the celebration of the subsequent marriage is prima facie presumed to have been conceived during such marriage, even though it be born within the three hundred days after the death of the former husband. He or his heirs may ask the court to take measures to prevent a simulation of birth. There is no presumption of legitimacy or illegitimacy of a child born after three hundred days following the dissolution of the marriage or the separation of the spouses. The action to impugn the legitimacy of the child shall be brought within one year from the recording of the birth in the Civil Register, if the husband should be in the same place, or in a proper case, any of his heirs. The action to claim his legitimacy may be brought by the child during all his lifetime, and shall be transmitted to his heirs if he should die during his minority or in a state of insanity.
The license shall be valid in any part of the Philippines; but it shall be good for no more than one hundred and twenty days from the date on which it is issued and shall be deemed canceled at the expiration of said period if the interested parties have not made use of it. (3) A statement that the proper marriage license has been issued according to law and that the contracting parties have the consent of their parents in case the male is under twenty or the female under eighteen years of age; and(4) A statement that the guardian or parent has been informed of the marriage, if the male is between the ages of twenty and twenty-five years, and the female between eighteen and twenty-three years of age. The official, priest, or minister solemnizing the marriage shall retain the third copy of the marriage contract, the marriage license and the affidavit of the interested party regarding the solemnization of the marriage in a place other than those mentioned in Article 57 if there be any such affidavit, in the files that he must keep. He shall enter in said register the names of the applicants, the date on which the marriage license was issued, and such other data as may be necessary. The official, priest or minister who solemnized the marriage shall also state in an affidavit that he took steps to ascertain the ages and other qualifications of the contracting parties and that he found no legal impediment to the marriage. Nor shall the persons solemnizing these marriages be obliged to comply with Article 92. Whenever an amount or credit payable in a certain number of years belongs to one of the spouses, the sums which may be collected by installments due during the marriage shall not pertain to the conjugal partnership, but shall be considered capital of the husband or of the wife, as the credit may belong to one or the other spouse. However, the payment of debts contracted by the husband or the wife before the marriage, and that of fines and indemnities imposed upon them, may be enforced against the partnership assets after the responsibilities enumerated in Article 161 have been covered, if the spouse who is bound should have no exclusive property or if it should be insufficient; but at the time of the liquidation of the partnership such spouse shall be charged for what has been paid for the purpose above-mentioned. The courts may also confer the administration to the wife, with such limitation as they may deem advisable, if the husband should become a fugitive from justice or be in hiding as a defendant in a criminal case, or if, being absolutely unable to administer, he should have failed to provide for administration.
Upon the dissolution of corporations, institutions and other entities for public interest or purpose mentioned in No. Marriage is not a mere contract but an inviolable social institution. Any male of the age of sixteen years or upwards, and any female of the age of fourteen years or upwards, not under any of the impediments mentioned in Articles 80 to 84, may contract marriage. This declaration shall be set forth in an instrument in triplicate, signed by signature or mark by the contracting parties and said two witnesses and attested by the person solemnizing the marriage. The marriage shall be solemnized publicly in the office of the judge in open court or of the mayor; or in the church, chapel or temple, as the case may be, and not elsewhere, except in cases of marriages contracted on the point of death or in remote places in accordance with Article 72 of this Code, or in case of marriage referred to in Article 76 or when one of the parents or the guardian of the female or the latter herself if over eighteen years of age request it in writing, in which cases the marriage may be solemnized at a house or place designated by said parent or guardian of the female or by the latter herself in a sworn statement to that effect. Such application shall insofar as possible contain the following data:(12) Full name and residence of the guardian or person having charge, in case the contracting party has neither father nor mother and is under the age of twenty years, if a male, or eighteen years if a female. These certificates or certified copies of the documents required by this article need not to be sworn to and shall be exempt from the documentary stamp tax. When the father or the mother makes the recognition separately, he or she shall not reveal the name of the person with whom he or she had the child; neither shall he or she state any circumstance whereby the other parent may be identified. This assistance includes, in a proper case, expenses necessary for elementary education and for professional or vocational training. After the final judgment of legal separation, or of annulment of marriage, the obligation of mutual support between the spouses ceases. The person obliged to give support may, at his option, fulfill his obligation either by paying the allowance fixed, or by receiving and maintaining in his house the person who has a right to receive support. The foregoing provisions shall be applicable to other cases where, in virtue of this Code or of any other law, by will, or by stipulation there is a right to receive support, save what is stipulated, ordered by the testator or provided by law for the special case. In case of descendants of the same degree, or of brothers and sisters, the oldest shall be preferred. The funeral shall be in accordance with the expressed wishes of the deceased. The father and mother jointly exercise parental authority over their legitimate children who are not emancipated. The fruits and interest of the child's property referred to in article 321 shall be applied first to the expenses for the support and education of the child. Whatever the child may acquire with the capital or property of the parents belongs to the latter in ownership and in usufruct. The property or income donated, bequeathed or devised to the unemancipated child for the expenses of his education and instruction shall pertain to him in ownership and usufruct; but the father or mother shall administer the same, if in the donation or testamentary provision the contrary has not been stated.
No priest or minister not having the required authorization may solemnize marriage. Consequently, no public official shall attempt to inquire into the truth or validity of any religious doctrine held by the applicant or by his church. The cancellation of the authorization granted to a priest, pastor or minister shall likewise be ordered upon the request of the bishop, head, or lawful authorities of the denomination, church, sect or religion to which he belongs. Said official may also by regulations fix and collect fees for the authorization of priests and ministers to solemnize marriages. If there is no collusion, the prosecuting attorney shall intervene for the State in order to take care that the evidence for the plaintiff is not fabricated. The husband shall continue to manage the conjugal partnership property but if the court deems it proper, it may appoint another to manage said property, in which case the administrator shall have the same rights and duties as a guardian and shall not be allowed to dispose of the income or of the capital except in accordance with the orders of the court. (2) The conjugal partnership of gains or the absolute conjugal community of property shall be dissolved and liquidated, but the offending spouse shall have no right to any share of the profits earned by the partnership or community, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 176;(4) The offending spouse shall be disqualified from inheriting from the innocent spouse by intestate succession. The innocent spouse, after a decree of legal separation has been granted, may revoke the donations by reason of marriage made by him or by her to the offending spouse. The husband is responsible for the support of the wife and the rest of the family. She may borrow money for this purpose, if the husband fails to deliver the proper sum. The donor by reason of marriage shall release the property donated from mortgages and all other encumbrances upon the same, with the exception of easements, unless in the marriage settlements or in the contracts the contrary has been stipulated.
Moreover, provisions in favor of the offending spouse made in the will of the innocent one shall be revoked by operation of law. Alienation and mortgages made before the notation of the complaint for revocation in the Registry of Property shall be valid. These expenses shall be met first from the conjugal property, then from the husband's capital, and lastly from the wife's paraphernal property. The husband is the administrator of the conjugal property, unless there is a stipulation in the marriage settlements conferring the administration upon the wife. The wife cannot, without the husband's consent acquire any property by gratuitous title, except from her ascendants, descendants, parents-in-law, and collateral relatives within the fourth degree. The purchase of jewelry and precious objects is voidable, unless the transaction has been expressly or tacitly approved by the husband, or unless the price paid is from her paraphernal property. The future spouses may give each other in their marriage settlements as much as one-fifth of their present property, and with respect to their future property, only in the event of death, to the extent laid down by the provisions of this Code referring to testamentary succession.
Thoughtless extravagance in expenses for pleasure or display during a period of acute public want or emergency may be stopped by order of the courts at the instance of any government or private charitable institution. The following and similar acts, though they may not constitute a criminal offense, shall produce a cause of action for damages, prevention and other relief: Art. Any person suffering material or moral loss because a public servant or employee refuses or neglects, without just cause, to perform his official duty may file an action for damages and other relief against he latter, without prejudice to any disciplinary administrative action that may be taken. Upon motion of the defendant, the court may require the plaintiff to file a bond to answer for damages in case the complaint should be found to be malicious. When the civil action is based on an obligation not arising from the act or omission complained of as a felony, such civil action may proceed independently of the criminal proceedings and regardless of the result of the latter. Such civil action shall proceed independently of any criminal prosecution (if the latter be instituted), and mat be proved by a preponderance of evidence. Such civil action shall proceed independently of the criminal prosecution, and shall require only a preponderance of evidence. The civil action herein recognized shall be independent of any criminal proceedings, and a preponderance of evidence shall suffice to support such action. Such civil action may be supported by a preponderance of evidence. Pre-judicial questions which must be decided before any criminal prosecution may be instituted or may proceed, shall be governed by rules of court which the Supreme Court shall promulgate and which shall not be in conflict with the provisions of this Code. Capacity to act, which is the power to do acts with legal effect, is acquired and may be lost. Capacity to act is not limited on account of religious belief or political opinion. Such instrument shall contain the sworn declaration of two witnesses, of lawful age, of either sex, setting forth the full name, profession, and residence of such contracting party and of his or her parents, if known, and the place and date of birth of such party. At the sale under execution referred to in the two preceding articles, no bid shall be considered unless it exceeds the amount specified in Article 231. Only natural children who have been recognized by the parents before or after the celebration of the marriage, or have been declared natural children by final judgment, may be considered legitimated by subsequent marriage. Legitimation may be impugned by those who are prejudiced in their rights, when it takes place in favor of those who do not have the legal condition of natural children or when the requisites laid down in this Chapter are not complied with. When two or more recipients at the same time claim support from one and the same person legally obliged to give it, and the latter should not have sufficient means to satisfy all, the order established in the preceding article shall be followed, unless the concurrent obligees should be the spouse and a child subject to parental authority, in which case the latter shall be preferred. For his purpose, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem. They may lift the detention when they deem it opportune, with the approval of the court. If the property is worth more than two thousand pesos, the father or mother shall give a bond subject to the approval of the Court of First Instance.
Every person shall respect the dignity, personality, privacy and peace of mind of his neighbors and other persons. Unfair competition in agricultural, commercial or industrial enterprises or in labor through the use of force, intimidation, deceit, machination or any other unjust, oppressive or highhanded method shall give rise to a right of action by the person who thereby suffers damage. Such action requires only a preponderance of evidence. Any public officer or employee, or any private individual, who directly or indirectly obstructs, defeats, violates or in any manner impedes or impairs any of the following rights and liberties of another person shall be liable to the latter for damages:(16) The right of the accused to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witness in his behalf;(17) Freedom from being compelled to be a witness against one's self, or from being forced to confess guilt, or from being induced by a promise of immunity or reward to make such confession, except when the person confessing becomes a State witness; In any of the cases referred to in this article, whether or not the defendant's act or omission constitutes a criminal offense, the aggrieved party has a right to commence an entirely separate and distinct civil action for damages, and for other relief. In cases of defamation, fraud, and physical injuries a civil action for damages, entirely separate and distinct from the criminal action, may be brought by the injured party. When a member of a city or municipal police force refuses or fails to render aid or protection to any person in case of danger to life or property, such peace officer shall be primarily liable for damages, and the city or municipality shall be subsidiarily responsible therefor. When a person, claiming to be injured by a criminal offense, charges another with the same, for which no independent civil action is granted in this Code or any special law, but the justice of the peace finds no reasonable grounds to believe that a crime has been committed, or the prosecuting attorney refuses or fails to institute criminal proceedings, the complaint may bring a civil action for damages against the alleged offender. Juridical capacity, which is the fitness to be the subject of legal relations, is inherent in every natural person and is lost only through death. Minority, insanity or imbecility, the state of being a deaf-mute, prodigality and civil interdiction are mere restrictions on capacity to act, and do not exempt the incapacitated person from certain obligations, as when the latter arise from his acts or from property relations, such as easements. The consequences of these circumstances are governed in this Code, other codes, the Rules of Court, and in special laws. Birth determines personality; but the conceived child shall be considered born for all purposes that are favorable to it, provided it be born later with the conditions specified in the following article. However, if the fetus had an intra-uterine life of less than seven months, it is not deemed born if it dies within twenty-four hours after its complete delivery from the maternal womb. (3) Corporations, partnerships and associations for private interest or purpose to which the law grants a juridical personality, separate and distinct from that of each shareholder, partner or member. If nothing has been specified on this point, the property and other assets shall be applied to similar purposes for the benefit of the region, province, city or municipality which during the existence of the institution derived the principal benefits from the same. If either of the contracting parties is unable to produce his baptismal or birth certificate or a certified copy of either because of the destruction or loss of the original, or if it is shown by an affidavit of such party or of any other person that such baptismal or birth certificate has not yet been received though the same has been requested of the person having custody thereof at least fifteen days prior to the date of the application, such party may furnish in lieu thereof his residence certificate for the current year or any previous years, to show the age stated in his application or, in the absence thereof, an instrument drawn up and sworn to before the local civil registrar concerned or any public official authorized to solemnize marriage. In case the recognition is made by only one of the parents, it shall be presumed that the child is natural, if the parent recognizing it had legal capacity to contract marriage at the time of the conception. However, in case of urgent need and by special circumstances, the judge may order only one of them to furnish the support provisionally, without prejudice to his right to claim from the other obligors the share due from them. Support in the cases referred to in the preceding article shall be reduced or increased proportionately, according to the reduction or increase of the needs of the recipient and the resources of the person obliged to furnish the same. In case of doubt, the form of the funeral shall be decided upon by the person obliged to make arrangements for the same, after consulting the other members of the family. Recognized natural and adopted children who are under the age of majority are under the parental authority of the father or mother recognizing or adopting them, and are under the same obligation stated in the preceding paragraph. If the child is to be kept in a children's home or similar institution for not more than one month, an order of the justice of the peace or municipal judge shall be necessary, after due hearing, where the child shall be heard. The father and the mother shall satisfy the support for the detained child; but they shall not have any intervention in the regime of the institution where the child is detained. The father, or in his absence the mother, is the legal administrator of the property pertaining to the child under parental authority. The property which the unemancipated child has acquired or may acquire with his work or industry, or by any lucrative title, belongs to the child in ownership, and in usufruct to the father or mother under whom he is under parental authority and in whose company he lives; but if the child, with the parent's consent, should live independently from them, he shall be considered as emancipated for all purposes relative to said property, and he shall have over it dominion, usufruct and administration. The license shall be issued after the completion of the publication, unless the local civil registrar receives information upon any alleged impediment to the marriage. If he is convicted that there is an impediment to the marriage, it shall be his duty to withhold the marriage license, unless he is otherwise ordered by a competent court. No other sum shall be collected, in the nature of a fee or tax of any kind, for the issuance of a marriage license. In case either of the contracting parties is on the point of death or the female has her habitual residence at a place more than fifteen kilometers distant from the municipal building and there is no communication by railroad or by provincial or local highways between the former and the latter, the marriage may be solemnized without necessity of a marriage license; but in such cases the official, priest, or minister solemnizing it shall state in an affidavit made before the local civil registrar or any person authorized by law to administer oaths that the marriage was performed in articulo mortis or at a place more than fifteen kilometers distant from the municipal building concerned, in which latter case he shall give the name of the barrio where the marriage was solemnized. The original of the affidavit required in the last preceding article, together with a copy of the marriage contract, shall be sent by the person solemnizing the marriage to the local civil registrar of the municipality where it was performed within the period of thirty days, after the performance of the marriage. A marriage in articulo mortis may also be solemnized by the captain of a ship or chief of an airplane during a voyage, or by the commanding officer of a military unit, in the absence of a chaplain, during war. Marriages between Filipino citizens abroad may be solemnized by consuls and vice-consuls of the Republic of the Philippines. No marriage license shall be necessary when a man and a woman who have attained the age of majority and who, being unmarried, have lived together as husband and wife for at least five years, desire to marry each other. Marriages between Mohammedans or pagans who live in the non-Christian provinces may be performed in accordance with their customs, rites or practices. Improvements, whether for utility or adornment, made on the separate property of the spouses through advancements from the partnership or through the industry of either the husband or the wife, belong to the conjugal partnership. Whenever the paraphernal property or the husband's capital consists, in whole or in part, of livestock existing upon the dissolution of the partnership, the number of animals exceeding that brought to the marriage shall be deemed to be of the conjugal partnership. Unless the wife has been declared a non compos mentis or a spendthrift, or is under civil interdiction or is confined in a leprosarium, the husband cannot alienate or encumber any real property of the conjugal partnership without the wife's consent. In case of abuse of powers of administration of the conjugal partnership property by the husband, the courts, on petition of the wife, may provide for receivership, or administration by the wife, or separation of property. Should the wife fail to exercise this right, she or her heirs, after the dissolution of the marriage, may demand the value of property fraudulently alienated by the husband. However, if the conjugal partnership property came mostly or entirely from the work or industry, or from the wages and salaries, or from the fruits of the separate property of the guilty spouse, this forfeiture shall not apply. The provision of the preceding article shall govern.(3) If the husband has abandoned the wife without just cause for at least one year, she may petition the court for a receivership, or administration by her of the conjugal partnership property, or separation of property. These effects, as well as the clothing for their ordinary use, shall be delivered to the surviving spouse. Those suffered by real property shall not be reimbursable in any case, except those on paraphernal property administered by the husband, when the losses were due to his fault. However, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 292, the husband and the wife shall be reciprocally liable for their support during the separation, and for the support and education of their children; all in proportion to their respective property.(4) When the court, at the instance of the wife, authorizes the husband to resume the administration of the conjugal partnership, the court being satisfied that the husband will not again abuse his powers as an administrator; In the above cases, the property relations between the spouses shall be governed by the same rules as before the separation, without prejudice to the acts and contracts legally executed during the separation. In case the future spouses agree in the marriage settlements that the system of absolute community shall govern their property relations during marriage, the following provisions shall be of supplementary application. If the common property is insufficient to cover common debts, the same may be enforced against the separate property of the spouses, who shall be equally liable. In case of unjustifiable refusal by the other spouse, the courts may grant the necessary consent. In case of legal separation or annulment of marriage, the provisions of Articles 176 and 177 shall apply to the net profits acquired during the marriage.