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For purposes of Book IV, this shall include any instrumentality, as herein defined, having or assigned the rank of a department, regardless of its name or designation.
(8) Bureau refers to any principal subdivision or unit of any department.
292 INSTITUTING THE "ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987" WHEREAS, the Administrative Code currently in force was first forged in 1917 when the relationship between the people and the government was defined by the colonial order then prevailing; WHEREAS, efforts to achieve an integrative and over-all recodification of its provisions resulted in the Administrative Code of 1978 which, however, was never published and later expressly repealed; WHEREAS, the effectiveness of the Government will be enhanced by a new Administrative Code which incorporates in a unified document the major structural, functional and procedural principles and rules of governance; and WHEREAS, a new Administrative Code will be of optimum benefit to the people and Government officers and employees as it embodies changes in administrative structures and procedures designed to serve the people; NOW, THEREFORE, I, CORAZON C.
AQUINO, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby promulgate the Administrative Code of 1987, as follows: INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS Section 1. - This Act shall be known as the "Administrative Code of 1987." Section 2. - Unless the specific words of the text, or the context as a whole, or a particular statute, shall require a different meaning: (1) Government of the Republic of the Philippines refers to the corporate governmental entity through which the functions of government are exercised throughout the Philippines, including, save as the contrary appears from the context, the various arms through which political authority is made effective in the Philippines, whether pertaining to the autonomous regions, the provincial, city, municipal or barangay subdivisions or other forms of local government.
When used with reference to a person having authority to do a particular act or perform a particular function in the exercise of governmental power, "officer" includes any government employee, agent or body having authority to do the act or exercise that function. - Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. - Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. (2) The custody, ceremonial use, occasion and manner of display, and the proper care and disposition of the flag shall be governed by appropriate rules and regulations. It shall be sung or played upon the opening or start of all state celebrations or gatherings and on such other occasions as may be prescribed by appropriate rules and regulations. Arms and Great Seal of the Republic of the Philippines. - Laws shall have prospective effect unless the contrary is expressly provided. Interpretation of Laws and Administrative Issuances. - In the interpretation of a law or administrative issuance promulgated in all the official languages, the English text shall control, unless otherwise specifically provided. - When a law which impliedly repeals a prior law is itself repealed, the prior law shall thereby be revived, unless the repealing law provides otherwise. CHAPTER 7REGULAR HOLIDAYS AND NATIONWIDE SPECIAL DAYS Section 26. - (2) The terms "legal or regular holiday" and "special holiday", as used in laws, orders, rules and regulations or other issuances shall be referred to as "regular holiday" and "special day", respectively. Only weights and measures of the metric system shall be officially sealed and licensed. Persons or entities allowed under existing laws to use the English system or other standards and weights are given until the date to be fixed by the Metric System Board to adopt the metric system. CHAPTER 9GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING PUBLIC OFFICERS Section 32. (3) Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military.
(3) Local Government refers to the political subdivisions established by or in accordance with the Constitution.
BOOK I SOVEREIGNTY AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 1THE NATIONAL TERRITORY Section 3. - The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. - The territorial and political subdivisions of the Philippines are the autonomous regions, provinces, subprovinces, cities, municipalities and barangays. (4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. Beneath shall be a scroll with the words "Republic of the Philippines, " or its equivalent in the national language, inscribed thereon. - Until otherwise provided by law, Pilipino and English shall be the official languages. (5) The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays.
The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. (2) The Great Seal shall be circular in form, with the arms as described in the preceding paragraph, but without the scroll and the inscription thereon, and surrounding the whole, a double marginal circle within which shall appear the words "Republic of the Philippines," or its equivalent in the national language. - The Great Seal shall be affixed to or placed upon all commissions signed by the President and upon such other official documents and papers of the Republic of the Philippines as may be required by custom and usage. - The various offices of government may adopt appropriate coats-of-arms, seals and banners. There shall be autonomous regions, in accordance with the Constitution, in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as may be provided by law.
The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie.
The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty (30) session days of the Congress from their submission. - The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. - The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments.
(4) Agency of the Government refers to any of the various units of the Government, including a department, bureau, office, instrumentality, or government-owned or controlled corporations, or a local government or a distinct unit therein.