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Client expectations were generally positive toward massage and their massage therapists.
Positive outcome expectations had a positive effect on clients’ changes in pain and serenity.
Role expectations refer to beliefs about the expected behavior of a person who occupies a particular position; review findings examining the relationship between role expectations and psychotherapy outcomes are equivocal, largely due to weaknesses associated with poor measurement.
Although there are similarities in patient expectations across health care disciplines, they are often discipline-specific.
Role expectations refer to the expected behaviors of the massage therapist - what clients expect massage therapists will do before, during, and after the massage session.
Prior to randomization, expectations were measured via telephone interviews in four ways: 1) expectation for treatment benefit (from 0–10, how helpful did they believe massage or acupuncture would be for their back problem); 2) relative strength of expected benefit (the difference between the massage and acupuncture scores); 3) average expectation (the average of the massage and acupuncture scores); and 4) general expectations regarding prognosis without reference to either treatment (using a seven-point Likert scale, participants replied to “one month from now, do you expect your back or leg pain to be 1 = completely gone to 7 = much worse). Those with higher expectations also had significantly greater pre-post improvements in back pain.
This is a five-point Likert scale with each item having its own specific set of responses ranging from “extremely much” to “not at all”.